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Optimizing warehouse layout and operations

Feb 28, 2024 - Alyssa Wolfe
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Optimizing warehouse layout and operations is critical for ecommerce businesses looking to improve order fulfillment, streamline logistics, enhance customer satisfaction and increase profitability. Well-designed warehouse layouts maximize space utilization, creating seamless workflows and minimizing unnecessary movement. This helps you reduce labor costs and improve productivity. Additionally, by organizing inventory strategically and implementing efficient picking and packing processes, you can fulfill orders quickly and accurately, leading to faster delivery times. Your fulfillment processes and post-purchase experience is essential to today’s customer experience. In providing a seamless journey, customers are more likely to return and stay loyal.

How to optimize warehouse layout

Optimizing your warehouse layout is essential. Doing so simplifies operations, maximizes efficiency and improves overall productivity. A well-designed warehouse layout not only enhances inventory management but also contributes to faster order fulfillment. Here are key steps and strategies to get started:

Evaluate space utilization

Start by assessing the space in your warehouse and analyzing how it's currently being used. Ask what’s working and what’s not. Look at everything that’s available and identify areas of inefficiency or wasted space. This includes things like unused corners or aisles. Begin developing a plan to optimize congested, underutilized or unused areas for better storage and workflow.

Implement efficient storage systems

Select storage systems that maximize vertical space and provide easy access to inventory. For example, options such as pallet racking, mezzanine storage and shelving systems can help optimize storage density while maintaining accessibility. Address factors like SKU velocity and product dimensions when determining storage locations to minimize picking and retrieval times.

Ecommerce warehouses use a variety of storage systems to manage inventory and facilitate order fulfillment, including:

  • Pallet racking: Both versatile and widely used in ecommerce warehouses, pallet racking systems consist of upright frames and horizontal beams to support palletized goods. Different types of pallet racking include selective racking, drive-in racking and push-back racking, each offering different levels of accessibility and storage density.
  • Shelving systems: Ideal for storing smaller items or products that are picked manually. Shelving systems come in various configurations, such as static shelving, mobile shelving and carton flow shelving. They allow flexibility and accessibility for different types of inventories.
  • Mezzanine storage: Mezzanine storage adds a raised platform or floor within the warehouse to create additional storage space. Mezzanines can be used for bulk storage, order picking or office space. They help businesses maximize vertical space without expanding the footprint of the warehouse.
  • Bin shelving: Bin shelving systems consist of open shelves with dividers or bins to organize small parts or products. They are commonly used for storing fast-moving items or order picking in ecommerce warehouses, providing easy access and visibility to inventory.
  • Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS): These systems utilize automated technology, such as conveyor systems, robotic arms and vertical lift modules, to store and retrieve inventory. AS/RS systems are highly efficient and can significantly increase throughput and accuracy in ecommerce warehouses.
  • Flow racks: Flow racks, also known as gravity flow racks or carton flow racks, use gravity to move products from the loading end to the picking end. They are commonly used for high-density storage of small items or cartons and are used for first-in-first-out (FIFO) inventory management.
  • Cantilever racking: These systems are designed to store long, bulky or irregularly shaped items, such as furniture, pipes or lumber. Cantilever racking consists of vertical columns with horizontal arms that extend outward, providing easy access to oversized inventory.

Create dedicated zones

Organize your warehouse into dedicated zones based on product type, SKU velocity or order processing requirements. This helps streamline workflows and reduces the need for unnecessary movement within the warehouse. Common zones include receiving, storage, picking, packing and shipping areas.

Leverage automation and technology

Warehouse automation technologies like conveyor systems, automated guided vehicles (AGVs) and warehouse management systems (WMS) help optimize processes and reduce manual labor. Automation can also significantly increase picking and packing efficiency, minimize errors and improve overall throughput.

Implement lean principles

Apply the 5S lean principles: Sort, Set in order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain. You can also use Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory management to eliminate waste and streamline operations. Work to organize workstations and storage areas for maximum efficiency, standardize processes to minimize variability and continuously monitor and improve workflows.

Prioritize safety and ergonomics

Your warehouse layout should prioritize employee safety and ergonomics. Design workstations and storage areas with ergonomic principles in mind to reduce the risk of injuries and improve employee comfort and productivity. Provide proper training and implement safety protocols to maintain a safe working environment.

Address potential product complexities

When products vary significantly in size, shape, weight and storage requirements, warehouse layout becomes more complex. Irregularly shaped items, such as furniture or machinery parts, may require specialized storage solutions like cantilever racking or mezzanine storage to accommodate their dimensions. Perishable goods, like food or pharmaceuticals, necessitate temperature-controlled environments or specialized storage areas to maintain product quality and safety. High-value items, such as electronics or luxury goods, may require additional security measures, like restricted access zones or surveillance systems, to prevent theft or damage. Finally, managing inventory with seasonal fluctuations or unpredictable demand patterns (like you would see with apparel, beauty or shoe fulfillment) can add complexity to warehouse layout planning, requiring flexible storage solutions and agile operational strategies to adapt to changing conditions.

Regularly review and adjust

Finally, continuously monitor your warehouse performance metrics. Look at order fulfillment times, inventory accuracy and employee productivity. Regularly review and adjust your warehouse layout and operations based on changing business needs, seasonal fluctuations and feedback from warehouse staff.

How to optimize your warehouse operations

Your warehouse operations are crucial for to ensure efficient order fulfillment, minimize costs and enhance the customer experience. Businesses should look to standardize processes to minimize variability while also empowering employees to identify and implement process improvements. Some key ways to optimize warehouse operations are:

  • Streamline order processing: Implement efficient order processing workflows to minimize lead times and accelerate order fulfillment. A warehouse management system (WMS) can automate order routing, prioritize tasks and optimize picking routes for warehouse staff. By streamlining order processing, businesses can reduce processing times and become more efficient.
  • Utilize technology and automation: Modern technology solutions enhance warehouse operations. Barcode scanning systems, RFID technology and automated picking and packing equipment improve accuracy and efficiency. Automation can help reduce manual labor, minimize errors and increase productivity in warehouse operations.
  • Optimize inventory management: Implement inventory management best practices to optimize stock levels, reduce carrying costs and prevent stockouts or overstock situations. Demand forecasting tools can predict inventory requirements accurately and maintain optimal stock levels. Regularly audit inventory to identify discrepancies and improve accuracy. Investing in a best-in-class Order Management System (OMS) can further streamline order management.
  • Continuous improvement: Regularly review and adjust warehouse operations based on data insights, customer feedback and industry best practices to drive continuous improvement and operational excellence.

Benefits of optimizing your warehouse layout and operations

A strategic warehouse layout maximizes space utilization, minimizes travel time for workers and optimizes inventory storage, leading to improved productivity and cost-effectiveness. Businesses can reduce picking and packing times by strategically organizing inventory based on demand and SKU velocity and expedite order processing and shipment. With improvements, warehouse operations see faster order turnaround times, which is critical for meeting customer expectations for speedy and accurate delivery.


Optimized layout and operations are pivotal for scaling ecommerce businesses. As order volumes surge, scalable infrastructure and processes become imperative when you need to handle growing demand effectively. Investing in automation technologies, like robotics and conveyor systems, can also significantly enhance efficiency and scalability, letting businesses fulfill orders faster and more accurately during expansion.


Your warehouse layout and operations directly affect inventory. When optimized, it enhances inventory visibility and control and reduces the risk of stockouts and excess stock. Real-time inventory tracking enables businesses to make informed decisions, such as replenishing stock or reallocating resources based on demand fluctuations. When you warehouse operations are more efficient, it contributes to cost savings through reduced storage expenses, minimized product damage and lower shipping costs.


Put simply, optimized warehouse layout and operations are foundational to ecommerce enterprise success and growth, driving efficiency, customer satisfaction and retention and profitability.

How using a 3PL service optimizes your warehouse processes

A third-party logistics (3PL) service can significantly optimize warehouse processes for ecommerce brands. 3PL providers bring expertise and specialized knowledge in logistics and supply chain management and help businesses leverage best practices and industry insights to streamline their operations. By outsourcing logistics functions such as order fulfillment, inventory management and shipping to a 3PL, companies can focus on core activities like product development, marketing and customer service, leading to increased efficiency and productivity.


A 3PL provider can offer scalability and flexibility, allowing merchants to adapt to fluctuations in demand without significant investments in infrastructure or resources. 3PLs often have access to advanced technologies and resources, including warehouse management systems (WMS), transportation management systems (TMS), order management systems (OMS) and automated fulfillment solutions, which can further optimize warehouse processes and enhance overall performance.


Contact today to partner with an omnichannel fulfillment solution that unifies your commerce and enables your business to improve warehouse processes, reduce costs and better meet your customers' needs, from discovery to delivery.